• Willie Cooley posted an update 6 days, 1 hour ago

    Context (Kunde et al., 2012). In a current study, van GSK2140944 biological activity Opstal et al. (2011a) took a somewhat unique strategy and demonstrated that context effects may well certainly be initiated by subliminal primes. In their activity, subjects had to indicate irrespective of whether two target numbers (e.g., 3?) were the exact same or distinct. These target numbers have been constantly preceded by a masked (subliminal) prime. The essential comparative prime consisted of a capital letter in addition to a lower-case letter (A-a). In one particular experiment these primes had been mixed with primes consisting of two absolutely distinctive letters (a-D, the low-similarity context, Figure 2A), whereas in an additional experiment they were mixed with primes consisting of specifically the same letters (a-a, the high-similarity context, Figure 2B). Within the low-similarity context exactly where a-A primes were fairly equivalent to a-a primes (compared to a-D primes), a-A primes facilitated a “same” response towards the targets (Figure 2C). On the other hand, the identical prime (a-A) presented inside the high-similarity context (containing a-aFIGURE 2 | (A,B) Task-set-up. (C,D) Response instances for the low-similarity and high-similarity context for the different prime forms and prime-target congruency. Adapted with permission from van Opstal et al. (2011a).Frontiers in Human Neurosciencewww.frontiersin.orgMay 2012 | Volume 6 | Short article 121 |van Gaal et al.Consciousness, cognitive manage and decision-makingprimes) was relatively various and indeed facilitated a “different” response towards the targets (Figure 2D). Importantly, RTs had been equated across situations and, consequently, could not (directly) clarify the observed effects. This may be a vital step in further pushing the boundaries of unconscious data processing and opens the possibility that also a top-down task-set may be enabled unconsciously (Dehaene and Naccache, 2001). By now it’s effectively established that subliminal facts ajhp.120120-QUAN-57 processing (e.g., its depth, extent, and path) is influenced by a number of top-down cognitive functions, such as attention, task-set and strategy. Nevertheless, irrespective of whether top-down context effects themselves can be initiated or affected by subliminal stimuli is still beneath scrutiny (see also Kunde et al., 2012). Within this respect, the underlying mechanisms, boundary conditions and role of awareness in blockwise congruency effects (Desender and van den Bussche, 2012) and context-specific proportion effects (Heinemann et al., 2009) are interesting avenues for future experimentation. Subsequent, we’ll discuss one more vital and disputed aspect of subliminal info processing: its alleged short-lived nature.THE LIFE-TIME OF SUBLIMINAL Information PROCESSINGThe quantity of time that unconscious info can influence cognitive processing is strongly debated. Typical masked priming studies have reported a sharp reduce in the processing of masked primes with the passage of time and it has been observed that the influence of unconscious stimuli disappears inside about half a second (Greenwald et al., 1996; Mattler, 2005). Though this initial proof strongly pointed in to the direction of a severely restricted duration of unconscious processes (see pnas.1408988111 also Kunde, 2003), recent research question this assumption and have shown subtle influences of subliminal details across relatively long periods of time. A recent fMRI study showed powerful and long-lasting effects of unconscious task-relevant stimuli that were applied for instrumental conditioning (Pessiglione et al., 2008).