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In a recent study, van Opstal et al. (2011a) took a somewhat unique strategy and demonstrated that context effects may well certainly be initiated by subliminal primes. In their task, subjects had to indicate irrespective of whether two target numbers (e.g., three?) had been the identical or diverse. These target numbers had been constantly preceded by a masked (subliminal) prime. The essential comparative prime consisted of a capital letter along with a lower-case letter (A-a). In 1 experiment these primes have been mixed with primes consisting of two totally various letters (a-D, the low-similarity context, MedChemExpress Gilteritinib Figure 2A), whereas in yet another experiment they had been mixed with primes consisting of precisely the identical letters (a-a, the high-similarity context, Figure 2B). Inside the low-similarity context where a-A primes were reasonably comparable to a-a primes (in comparison to a-D primes), a-A primes facilitated a “same” response for the targets (Figure 2C). However, the identical prime (a-A) presented inside the high-similarity context (containing a-aFIGURE two | (A,B) Task-set-up. (C,D) Response occasions for the low-similarity and high-similarity context for the diverse prime kinds and prime-target congruency. Adapted with permission from van Opstal et al. (2011a).Frontiers in Human Neurosciencewww.frontiersin.orgMay 2012 | Volume 6 | Report 121 |van Gaal et al.Consciousness, cognitive control and decision-makingprimes) was relatively diverse and indeed facilitated a “different” response towards the targets (Figure 2D). Importantly, RTs were equated across circumstances and, hence, could not (straight) explain the observed effects. This may very well be a vital step in further pushing the boundaries of unconscious data processing and opens the possibility that also a top-down task-set may be enabled unconsciously (Dehaene and Naccache, 2001). By now it is actually properly established that subliminal information ajhp.120120-QUAN-57 processing (e.g., its depth, extent, and direction) is influenced by various top-down cognitive functions, such as consideration, task-set and strategy. Even so, regardless of whether top-down context effects themselves can be initiated or affected by subliminal stimuli continues to be under scrutiny (see also Kunde et al., 2012). In this respect, the underlying mechanisms, boundary conditions and role of awareness in blockwise congruency effects (Desender and van den Bussche, 2012) and context-specific proportion effects (Heinemann et al., 2009) are intriguing avenues for future experimentation. Subsequent, we are going to go over a further vital and disputed aspect of subliminal data processing: its alleged short-lived nature.THE LIFE-TIME OF SUBLIMINAL Facts PROCESSINGThe quantity of time that unconscious data can influence cognitive processing is strongly debated. Common masked priming research have reported a sharp lower inside the processing of masked primes together with the passage of time and it has been observed that the influence of unconscious stimuli disappears within around half a second (Greenwald et al., 1996; Mattler, 2005). Though this initial evidence strongly pointed in to the path of a severely limited duration of unconscious processes (see pnas.1408988111 also Kunde, 2003), current research question this assumption and have shown subtle influences of subliminal information across reasonably extended periods of time. A recent fMRI study showed powerful and long-lasting effects of unconscious task-relevant stimuli that have been used for instrumental conditioning (Pessiglione et al., 2008). Pessigli.